'Marketing Research', a World-Renowned Scientific Magazine; ISSN 1131-6144, Nº. 88, 2005. By Author: Roberto Santana-Vizcaino

Author: Roberto Santana -Vizcaino (MBA, Eng.)

Referenced in: Research & Marketing Magazine: http://old.aedemo.es/aedemo3/revistas/pagina.php?revista=88&articulo=5

NOTE: This is a paper that I published in Spanish, 5 years ago, in a scientific renowned Spanish magazine, as part of my PhD studies (I changed my professional interests, and did not finished it). I decided to put it here because of the multivariate techniques that were applied. They are very useful in Quality of Services activities, due to the great amount of variables involved. 
Madrid University, Spain:

Dialnet. Portal of Hispanic cientific Production:


This research work was accomplished during the year 2003. Its General Objective was to design a methodological Procedure for measuring Quality of services based on Multivariate Statistics techniques.
In the implementation process was necessary to identify the different attributes of the service provided, using the observation method, expert’s opinion and literature review. With this information a survey was designed. There were used different statistics techniques like Factorial Analysis, multidimensional Scaling, Clusters, and non parametrical tests like Kruskal Wallis, Mann–Whitney U.

Key words: Quality of Services, Factor analysis, Multimensional Scaling, Discriminant, Non-parametric tests Kruskal Wallys and Mann Whitney U, Clusters; SERVPERF and SERVQUAL.

(Using multidimensional scaling with euclidean distance and SERVPERF model, restaurant & Hospitality services)


The words that revolve around "services" comes from the Latin word "Servus" emerging in the early first century. c., on the Italian Peninsula as a name given to prisoners of war, ie servant.

In modern times, the abolition of slavery, the word service is appropriate to connote focus and dedication, obsequious and obedient attitude, and even an appearance of humility. Service is a process that involves interpersonal respect in the objective sense to respond to customer expectations. It is feasible and desirable to serve as equals, practice the profession with dignity; perform semantic paradox "Serving Without Being Servile" [Chase-Aquilano, 1995].

In the 50s this new service concept was developed in business and service entities began to define themselves, with the evolution of these ideas came to realize that the industry could sell image, money, speed, safety and comfort, just as in manufacturing.

Dimensions of Quality,

Reliability: The staff always adheres to the rules, keeps promises and get things going right the first time.

Responsiveness: The staff responds promptly, enjoys providing the service and demonstrates a sincere desire to serve.

Competition: The staff has the knowledge and experience necessary to provide the service as expected by the customer.

Access: Employees are communicative and easy to contact them

Courtesy: Employees show consideration and respect for the client and their belongings, all employees who have contact with customers are dressed neatly.

Communication: You must inform and guide customers with clear language and polite, listen carefully when asked.

Credibility: The customer thinks he can trust the staff and they all take care to help.

Security: The client feels physically and psychologically safe.

Understanding: The staff strives to understand the needs and concerns of the customer and to meet their special wishes; know and serve each client individually.

Tangibles: the material elements are related to construction conditions of the facilities and external appearance of the employees, which should be perfect and suitable to your image.

Results with Software Package SPSS:

Table 1: Results of the application of factor analysis in the restaurant 'Pearl' using the SERVPERF model.

SPSS Multidemensional Scaling
Figure 2. Multidimensional Scaling showing four groups of variables that could form four dimensions of quality, according to clients survey.

«There are no such things as service industries. There are only industries whose service components are greater or less than those of other industries. Everybody is in service»
Theodore Levitt.

Table 1: Correlation coefficients between SERVPERF model and general measures of quality for "Pearl Center"

(Coef. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level)

SURVEY / Questionnaire


                        Attributes                                                                                Low    1    2    3    4    5    High



1     Attractiveness of building exteriors                                                                                                                                                       

2     Employees´ appearance 

3     A decor in keeping with its image and price range

4     Easily readable menu

5     Quality of food

6     Quality of beverages

7     Cleanliness of service areas    

8     Comfort of service areas


9     Mistakes correction


10   Promptness of   service

11   Extra effort for special requests


12   Employees willingness to give you information

13   Safety of the Restaurant / Cafeteria

14   Employees competence


15   Employees sensibility to your individual needs and wants

16   Employees courtesy and kindness

17   Employees sympathy


18   Quality – price relation (value for money)







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